Kohaku is Koi with red pattern on white ground. It has been said that Koi keeping begins and ends with the Kohaku. Kohaku, Taisho Sanshoku and Showa Sanshoku are the most popular varieties, and they are called “Gosanke (Big 3).”
Taisho Sanshoku is Koi with relatively spotted Sumi (black) on Kohaku pattern. Because the variety was created in the era of Taisho in Japan, it is called “Taisho Sanshoku.” In short, it is also called “Taisho Sanke” or “Sanke.”
Showa Sanshoku is Koi with calligraphic Sumi pattern on Kohaku. It is called Showa because the variety was created in the era of Showa in Japan. In short, it is called “Showa Sanshoku” or “Showa,”
Utsuri mono indicates varieties with calligraphic pattern on one solid ground such as Shiro Utsuri, Hi Utsuri, and Ki Utsuri
Bekko is Taisho Sanshoku with no Hi (red) pattern.
The entire body is indigo or blue. Each scale consists of the netting pattern. It is the origin of Nishikigoi
Shusui is Doitsu (scale less) version of Asagi
Koromo has indigo netting pattern on Hi (red) plate of Kohaku.
Goshiki is the variety that has Hi (red) pattern on Asagi ground.
Hikari Muji indicates varieties that have a solid metallic color such as Ogon, Platinum.
Kin Ginrin indicates the group of varieties that has diamond scales on the entire bodies.
Koi that has no scale is called Doitsu. Many varieties has Doitsu version.
Hikari Moyo indicates varieties that have patterns except for Sumi of Utsuri mono on the metallic ground such as:
Hariwake-Gold pattern on platinum ground
Kikusui- Doitsu Hariwake that has stronger red
Yamato Nishiki- Metallic Taisho Sanshoku
Heisei Nishiki- Doitsu metallic Taisho Sanshoku
Kujyaku- Metallic Goshik
Hikari Utsuri indicates varieties that has Sumi pattern of Utsuri mono on the metallic ground such as:
Kin Showa- Metallic Showa
Gin Shiro Utsuri- Metallic Shiro Utsuri
Kin Ki Utsuri- Metallic Ki Utsuri
Tancho is the variety whose only Hi is the round spot on the head. Depending on the pattern of the other colors on the body, they are categorized as Tancho Kohaku, Doitsu Tancho Kohaku, Tancho Showa, Tancho Goshiki (from left to right) etc.
Koi that do not belong to the above varieties are categorized to the class of “Kawari mono” at Koi shows. The examples are Chagoi (Brown or green brown Koi), Ochiba shigure (Koi has brown and gray pattern), Kumonryu, Beni Kumonryu etc.